Since the end of the last glacial period, much of the Boreal and Arctic zones have been covered by peatland dominated by species from the genus Sphagnum. These peatland areas are important in providing crucial ecosystem services such as habitat maintenance, permafrost protection, water regulation, greenhouse gas exchange, primary production, and they serve as carbon sinks (CAFF 2010). The amount of carbon in northern hemisphere peatlands is 320 gigatonnes (320 x 10ˆ12 kg), about 44% of the amount held in the atmosphere as CO2 (Rydin and Jeglum 2006). Peat accumulation mainly occurs in the warmest lowlands of central Spitsbergen and in areas influenced by bird fertilisation. In Svalbard, Sphagnum species are not commonly distributed and only found within the Middle Arctic Tundra Zone. Additionally, other bryophytes contribute to peat formation in the Arctic, such as Tomenthypnum nitens, Calliergon sarmentosum, Aulacomnium turgidum, Sanionia uncinata and Bryum pseudotriquetrum.