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• Learning Arctic Biology •

Want to learn about Arctic terrestrial biology?​

Video: Tina Dahl and Marcos Poricres

360° Virtual Field Guides

Explore a variety of locations and learn about its biology, history and more. All in 360 degrees!

ArtsApp - Digital Key​

A digital key for Svalbard’s flora, with specific keys for vascular plants and grasses.

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LGM and postglacial migration

During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), biodiversity was significantly reduced throughout the Arctic (Willerslev et al., 2014); however, the extent of this biodiversity loss varied. The

Arctic Freshwater Habitats

The arctic freshwater environment experienced dramatic climatic shifts during the Holocene (10,000 years ago to present) and Pleistocene, which has had enormous effects on the

Ecosystem functions – Invertebrates

The group invertebrate contains a great diversity of taxa and groups; from hard-bodied insects to soft bodied organisms such as worms. Given this diversity it

Mutualistic fungi

Mutualistic fungi live on other organisms, however in contrast to parasitism, mutualism benefits all involved organisms. The fungi get nutrition, mainly carbohydrates, from their partners,

Diversity of bryophytes

Bryophytes are the second most diverse group among land plants after the flowering plants (Magnoliophyta, ~350 000 described species; Glime 2007). Defining the number of species of

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What is a virus? Viruses are infectious agents that replicate exclusively within a living cell. Viruses can infect all types of organisms, from animals and

What are bryophytes?

Evolutionary origin Bryophytes belong to the embryophytes, which include all land plants. Evidence from structural, biochemical, and molecular data supports the view that bryophytes and all

Systematics of fungi

Modern fungal systematics is based upon genetic analysis. However, and structure of the hyphal cells are also important. Below you will find an overview of


Bacteria are the major drivers of the Earths biogeochemical cycles, and therefore very important components of the ecosystems. There are estimations showing that more than

Saprotrophic fungi

Saprotrophic fungi degrade dead organisms or their remains, such as litter or dung. Depending on their mode of breaking down cellulose or lignin, we recognise

What is a fungus?

The fungal kingdom (Fungi) is related to the animal kingdom. They separated approximately 1.5 billion years ago. Like animals and plants, fungi are eukaryotes, which

Parasitic fungi

Parasitic and pathogenic fungi obtain their nutrition from other living organisms, and have a negative effect upon the individuals – hosts – they are parasites

Microbial eukaryotes

Microbial eukaryotes are an evolutionary diverse group that gathers various eukaryotic organisms of often microscopic sizes, such as protist and fungi. Protists, comprise a large

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