e-Learning portal for Arctic Biology

• Learning Arctic Biology •

Want to learn about Arctic terrestrial biology?​

Video: Tina Dahl and Marcos Poricres

360° Virtual Field Guides

Explore a variety of locations and learn about its biology, history and more. All in 360 degrees!

ArtsApp - Digital Key​

A digital key for Svalbard’s flora, with specific keys for vascular plants and grasses.

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Adaptations for Arctic conditions

Cold tolerance For the invertebrates on Svalbard winter lasts for almost 10 months of the year (Convey et al. 2018). In the majority of winters

Parasitic fungi

Parasitic and pathogenic fungi obtain their nutrition from other living organisms, and have a negative effect upon the individuals – hosts – they are parasites

Invertebrate lifecycles in the Arctic

Arctic regions are characterized by long cold winters and short cool summers.  In order to establish invertebrates require more than to be able to tolerate

Invertebrate habitats in Svalbard

Invertebrates in Svalbard can be found just about anywhere, flying, under rocks, in the soil, crawling on the vegetation, in the streams and ponds, even

Biogeography of invertebrates

The biogeography of the invertebrate fauna of the Arctic is poorly known but can be generally described as a Holarctic fauna but with local endemics

Soil-invertebrate decomposers

Decomposition, the breakdown of soil organic matter (SOM) and the release of nutrients and fixed nitrogen, is an essential process in soil nutrient cycling and

Diversity of bryophytes

Bryophytes are the second most diverse group among land plants after the flowering plants (Magnoliophyta, ~350 000 described species; Glime 2007). Defining the number of species of


Arctic plant habitats

Habitats develop in relation to regional climate, snow-distribution, hydrology, soil chemistry, disturbance and nutrient input. These factors vary across the landscape, creating different habitats. At

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Systematics of fungi

Modern fungal systematics is based upon genetic analysis. However, and structure of the hyphal cells are also important. Below you will find an overview of

Ecosystem role of bryophytes

Bryophytes have many important ecosystem functions in the Arctic. These include: Regulation of hydrology In many habitats, bryophytes control soil and vegetation hydrology (Beringer et

What are bryophytes?

Evolutionary origin Bryophytes belong to the embryophytes, which include all land plants. Evidence from structural, biochemical, and molecular data supports the view that bryophytes and all

Life cycle of bryophytes

Like other plants, bryophytes change between two generations with different morphology and function (heteromorphy). Unlike vascular plants, in bryophytes the haploid gametophyte (1n) is the dominating generation.

What is a fungus?

The fungal kingdom (Fungi) is related to the animal kingdom. They separated approximately 1.5 billion years ago. Like animals and plants, fungi are eukaryotes, which

Mutualistic fungi

Mutualistic fungi live on other organisms, however in contrast to parasitism, mutualism benefits all involved organisms. The fungi get nutrition, mainly carbohydrates, from their partners,

Microbial eukaryotes

Microbial eukaryotes are an evolutionary diverse group that gathers various eukaryotic organisms of often microscopic sizes, such as protist and fungi. Protists, comprise a large


What is a virus? Viruses are infectious agents that replicate exclusively within a living cell. Viruses can infect all types of organisms, from animals and

Useful learning resources

bioCEED resource for learning statistics, tutorials for  the statistical computing language R and more!

How do you start with academic writing? This is the prefect resources for those who are about to write their first thesis/poster/essay etc. or looking for new tips when it comes to academic writing.

Svalbox is all about Svalbard geology. Svalbox aims to compile and acquire key data sets and publications to provide an interactive 3D geoscientific database of Svalbard.

The UNIS Executable Books page provides an overview of all eBooks available and/or used for teaching at the University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS).

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